Born in Cucq (in northern France), Pauline Parmetier started playing tennis at age 6 with her mother Dominique and her father Jean-Philippe (both work in cigar business). In May 2004 she maid her qualifying debut in Strasbourg (l.Nagyova). She made her tour-level main draw debut at 2005 Roland Garros (l. Benesova in 1r) and at Us Open she won her maiden Grand Slam match (l. Davenport in the second-round).
In 2007, Parmentier made her Top 100 debut in September 2007 (after US Open). She then won her first WTA singles title at 2007 Tashkent, defeating three seeds as Dominika Cibulková, Olga Govortsova and Victoria Azarenka in the final. She achieved her career high ranking of No.40 on July 21, 2008 after winning the second WTA singles title in Bad Gastein (d. Hradecka in F).
Parmentier, who represented France at 2008 Olympics and made her Fed Cup 2010 against the United States, claimed her best showing across all majors at 2014 Roland Garros when she lost to Muguruza in the round 16. She also reached the third round on home soil in 2016 (l. Bacsinszky) and at 2012 US Open (l. Kvitova).
In 2017, she posted her third Top 100 finish in four years, the seventh in her career, at No.91. Her campaign was highlighted by the semifinal run in Luxembourg (as qualifier, l. Wiffhoeft) and the quarter-finals showing in Acapulco (l. Lucic-Baroni) and Bucharest (l. eventual champion Begu).
In 2018 she won the third title in as many WTA finals in Istanbul as she defeated Wozniacki (via ret.) in the quarter-finals to celebrate her first win over a Top 10 player and Hercog in the title-match.