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Rebecca Peterson is the daughter of former tennis player Mart Peterson, an Estonian who left with his wife Miriam and older sister Berat to Sweden in 1990, just before the collapse of the Soviet Union.
A longtime friend of Anett Kontaveit, Peterson frew up admiring Kim Clijsters and Justine Henin. She made her WTA tour debut at the 2012 Swedish Open, losing in the first-round. In 2013 she won
three $10k ITF titles in Bastad and Stockholm (two tournaments) and two $25k titles in Merida, finishing the year ranked No.440.
In 2014, she reached her first Premier-mandatory second-round in Miami (d. Barthel via retirement, l.Makarova) and won her sixth ITF title in Perth. She also made her Fed Cup debut in doubles in a dead-rubber against Thailand (w/Melander) in the Group II playoffs. She finished the season ranked No.186.
In 2015 she ended the season ranked No.138 in singles and 105 in doubles. That year she won her maiden WTA doubles title in Rio de Janeiro (w/Bonaventure, d.Begu/Irigoyen via ret.). She also made her singles Fed Cup debut in the Group II first-round tie against Switzerland at home (l. Bacsinszky). She also lost to Schmiedlova later that year in the playoff away to Slovakia's Schmiedlova. She won two ITF titles at $25k in Ystad and added her first $50k title in Macon.
In 2016 she reached the second-round twice at WTA level and won her second $50k ITF title in Dothan.
In 2017 she missed the first half of the season with a shoulder injury. She won a $25k Itf title in Padova and reached the quarter-finals in Guangzhou (l. Krunic). She also made her Grand Slam debut at Roland Garros (l.Allertova).